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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

adj. 可能的,潜在的

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一项关于“双十一”(光棍节)购物狂欢的评估报告近日在北京发布,在此报告中,提供了对中国最大的年度在线购物活动的独特见解。
旅行枕
在英国,从2004年到2014年,非本土出生的人口增长了66%。最近的全民公投中,投票选择“离开”的人大都说移民问题是自己最大的顾虑。

对专业投资者而言,2014年最令人沮丧的一点是,美国经济复苏时断时续。2014年1月,经济领域捷报频传。然而,在短短几周内,一场暴风雪席卷全美,各种经济数据似乎也因此停摆。
All or most of the municipal government's departments will move, as the office buildings are scheduled to be completed that year.
Fast & Furious 6 helped place two other actors high on our list: Vin Diesel and the late Paul Walker. Diesel lands in fourth place with $887 million. Fast & Furious 6 earned $789 million at the box office worldwide. The third movie in his Riddick franchise hit theaters just a few months after. It only pulled in $98 million, but that was enough to put Diesel ahead of his co-star Walker on our list.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

130城出台楼市去库存新政 人民日报:房价会降吗

攻读EMBA也有利于升职。一位毕业生表示:“我获得的技能对我的升职至关重要。”五分之一的学员在毕业3年后担任首席执行官、执行董事或董事。学员们在读EMBA前的平均薪资为11.4万美元,毕业5年后增长52%至17.5万美元。
Below are a number of statements that people often use to describe themselves.
《前第一夫人要求伊斯兰教变得宽容并支持女权》(A Former First Lady Presses On for a Tolerant, Feminist Islam)

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

This year, the average sales price for an apartment in New York City topped $1 million, a milestone with far-reaching implications. As the city’s population soars, prices and buildings are rising in neighborhoods that missed the last housing boom.
想要谋杀老板的念头并不稀奇,但是当大家所讨论的老板真的死于谋杀时,就不是那么回事了。当警察来询问的时候,他们才知道,克兰斯顿兄弟俩已经辞职并骑着他们的摩托车横跨整个国家。他们俩在被证明清白之前都是嫌疑人。
History will look back on 2012 as the year when China anointed its "fifth generation" of leaders and shifted to a slower growth trajectory, writes Yukon Huang. This transition will take place against a backdrop of daunting internal challenges — increasing social unrest, widening income disparities and both ecological and man-made disasters — and of escalating external tensions, stemming from America's "pivot" to Asia and simmering regional worries about China's economic rise.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • It is the first time since 2001 that an athlete other than Mayweather Jnr or golfer Tiger Woods topped the earning league.
  • 家居建材产品频上质量黑榜 市场无序竞争成常态
  • 据教育部表示,这些学生90%以上都就读于英语国家,例如美国、英国和澳大利亚等,70%的人至少是在攻读学士学位。
  • 福建:家居行业尝试新型营销方式
  • 今夏北京求职期均薪10531元 8000元以上职位占一半
  • The disclosure form also warns forex buyers that they are not allowed to exploit others’ exchange quotas. Previously, aggregating quotas from multiple individuals was a common technique that grey-market money changers used to obtain large sums of foreign exchange.
    To wish you special joy at the holidays and all year.祝你在节日和新的一年中享有无限的快乐。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 全国一二线城市加速供地 三四线城市明显放缓, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

石材市场悄然生变 磨具产品如何立足

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

房企险企频频“姻缘” 房地产仍是投资不二选择

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • response
    Will the rest of the world cooperate?
  • "I heard from several business leaders who shared their concern about our relative silence and impact in urging the political leadership to act on behalf of the citizenry," Schultz wrote in a letter on his company's website.
    中国会很快宣布一系列的关于房价调控和医疗保险的措施。在2014年,中国仍然需要建造7500万间超过7万5千美金的房产。这方面的投资,特别是医疗方面,使得普通中国消费者开始进入少存钱多花钱的消费习惯,进而促进内需,最终促进长期的就业增加。
    mort=death死+gage抵押品→抵押品不能动,像死一样→抵押(品)
    The book reflects growing anxiety in some quarters about the possible negative impact of automation on jobs, from manufacturing to professional services. The subtitle of its UK edition warns of “the threat of mass unemployment” and, in the US edition, foresees “a jobless future”.
    n. 怪

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 自然资源部部长陆昊在河北天津调研
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 海南银行不良率为零 房地产行业贷款占比42.09%

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

一家国际医学杂志撤销了107篇中国学术论文,由此引发了人们对中国学术诚信的关注。被撤稿的作者多数是临床医生。
凯莎《彩虹》
别了,唐(Don)和他完美的西服;别了,佩姬(Peggy)和她的格子裙;别了,琼(Joan)和她的珠光宝气以及紧身连衣裙。
The announcement comes from the British Fashion Council (BFC), who surveyed designers ahead of the shows and found none of the 80 designers in the September line-up would be using fur.
在海外工作过至少6个月的女性少于男性(比例分别为42%和52%),但动机完全一样:加强管理能力、打造自己的人脉以及提高薪资。
According to BusinessInsider.com, 'embracing hyperbole, ' Faber 'suggested that QE would basically be a part of everyday life for the rest of our lives, ' adding that back in 2010 in the early days of Bernanke's disastrous experiment, Faber warned 'the Fed's headed for QE99.'
Justin Bieber was the big winner of the evening at the American Music Awards last night, taking home four accolades including Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist, Fa

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 8. 精彩出演)的艺术觉醒与性觉醒,欲望令她长大成人。
  • 嘉宝莉计划今年启动IPO上市 借资本或销售额翻番
  • Forget giving at least two weeks notice, finessing an exit interview, and tactfully networking your way out the door. Some people are in too big a hurry for any of that.
    Best Companies rank: 25
  • 二手房交易频繁解约:房子没买到 中介费不退?
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • ['vid?il?ns]
    在欧洲所有商学院中,高管MBA校友在毕业3年后的平均薪资为14.3万美元,管理硕士毕业生为5.4万美元。MBA毕业生平均薪资为12.3万美元。西班牙和德国的管理硕士毕业生在毕业3年后的薪资最高,均为平均7万美元。法国MBA毕业生和瑞士EMBA毕业生的薪资最高,平均薪资分别为13.7万美元和16.6万美元。
  • adj. 在 ... 之前,先,前,以前的
    在过去的一年中,20多个省推出鼓励学生创业的政策,在创业期间,允许学生休学2至8年,并保留其学籍。然而,很多行业内部坚持学生应该首先完成学业,并先工作几年。
  • The report found that third-tier cities are most livable places.
    2. Shanghai, China-The enormous metropolis of Shanghai—China's most populous city—has an historic urban core which sits alongside its status as a contemporary, global financial hub.
  • The emissions growth last year was a bit slower than the average growth rate of 2.5 percent over the past decade, and much of the dip was caused by an economic slowdown in China, which is the world's single largest source of emissions. It may take an additional year or two to know if China has turned a corner toward slower emissions growth, or if the runaway pace of recent years will resume.
    加强产权保护制度建设。
    勇士的横扫,实际上让那些试图挑战勇士的球队无力追赶勇士的脚步,致使联盟在季后赛收入上损失惨重。于是,总决赛便成了战胜勇士的最后的希望,也是最后的机会。总有些愚蠢的人通过不断告诉你不要低估了勒布朗·詹姆斯来让你重燃希望。我看了所有五场詹姆斯在的总决赛,我现在客观的告诉你:詹姆斯知道自己赢不了。“我能做什么?他们赢了73场比赛,我打败了他们,于是他们引进了凯文杜兰特。”在凯文杜兰特用自己的冷血投射杀死系列赛之前,骑士还设法在三场比赛中夺得了一场胜利。但最后,骑士队虽然避免了横扫的尴尬,但他们结束赛季的方式也只能用虎头蛇尾来形容。
  • 如果现在的闪电侠韦德减掉30磅肌肉,那你可能就分不清NBA版和高中版的韦德了。
    The secretive billionaire who launched a hostile takeover bid for China’s largest property developer has emerged as one of the country’s richest people, illustrating how leveraged financial investments are propelling huge increases in private wealth.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 融资门槛未变 房企发债融资成本显著降低 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

LED专利厮杀激烈,这些企业是如何“突围”的?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

房企资金多渠道收紧 “去杠杆”进入深水区

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

房地产投资增速连续20个月下滑 楼市政策或加码

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

一二线城市楼市转暖 今年各地调控措施已超164次

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 源于:sloth(n (对工作)懒惰)slou=slow,ch吃:吃得慢-无精打采的样子
  • Those falls came despite a rise in insurance premium income of 37.3 per cent year-on-year to Rmb1.88tn, while total assets reached Rmb14.27tn, up 15.4 per cent.
  • 央行发布三季度储户调查:房产投资挤出前三

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 年过40方当妈的女星们
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • The leadership changes across the industry will be of particular interest to female consulting professionals, given none of these firms have ever been run by a woman. Consulting firms are vocal proponents of the business case for improved gender diversity at the top of large companies. It will be interesting to see if any of them decide to practice what they preach.
    crime罪行+al表名词,“人,物,状态”→犯罪分子
    我是否玩儿得太high了?缺乏实现某些事情的动机会让你失去平衡或者稍后会让你感到筋疲力尽,很有压力。休息一下是非常有必要的,但是如果你休息得过了头从而使生产力降低,或者你养成了太过拖拉的习惯,那么或许就需要时间来平衡你的时间安排,以便你可以完成大量的事情而仍有时间休息娱乐。
  • 男女学员对所攻读项目的优势评价一样。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • But there's little doubt this was also an 'acqui-hire,' in which the person being bought is just as important as the product. D'Aloisio is now working full time in Yahoo!'s London office, and his youth, his energy and his undeniable it-factor have brought the formerly musty tech giant a much-needed injection of cool. Yahoo! CEO Marissa Mayer -who lends the company some of her own it-factor-praises his 'commitment to excellence in design and simplicity' and says she is 'inspired by the creativity and tenacity Nick brings to his work.'
  • 楼市“过热”局面年内或转向
  • 凭借创新性的信用评级技术,4年前创办的陆金所已经发展成为行业的领头羊。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 稳房价!住建部提明年楼市“三稳”目标 明确十大任务
  • Household substance abuse
  • 沪深两市主力资金净流出额36.90亿元
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

农村集体产权制度改革将覆盖八成的县

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 2014年建材家居产业规模将达4万亿 需破五大发展瓶颈
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 家居卖场闭市 谁为风险埋单?
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

transport

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

com共同,promise发誓:停战妥协就是两个国家共同发誓不打仗的产物。
日本央行会收紧货币政策吗?
"我认为机器会比人类更强大、更智能,但绝不会比人类更睿智。"马云如是说。“因为有一件事是肯定的:智慧、灵魂和心灵都是人类所拥有的东西,而机器永远不能享受失败、成功、友谊或爱情。”
There was no indication of the identity of the kidnappers or their motive.
Transport Ministry spokesman Xu Chengguang told a news conference that no further signs of life had been found and the chance of finding anyone else alive was "very slim."
阅读成功的商业案例。吸收史蒂夫o乔布斯等成功创业者以及《创智赢家》(Shark Tank)提供的知识财富。一份成功的商业计划书不需要长篇累牍。10页纸的商业计划书既便于理解,又足以包含你要开始实施的所有内容。
野村证券(Nomura)的分析师表示:“我们预期这一轮出口增长的反弹不会维持很长时间,未来数月增长势头将恢复温和,原因是人民币的升值可能弱化中国的出口竞争力,且即使习主席和特朗普总统近期在北京会面,发生贸易摩擦的潜在风险并未显著减轻。”
Lady Gaga ranks fourth with $59 million, followed by Beyoncé at $54.5 million. The former played 66 shows during our scoring period, also cashing in on deals with Versace and MAC, as well as her own Fame fragrance. The latter’s On The Run tour with husband Jay Z grossed over $100 million for 19 North American dates, giving music’s first couple a nightly average comparable to that of the Rolling Stones.
vt. 帮助,使 ... 容易,促进
And now for the companies that lost the most love ...

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

2020年聚合物涂料市值将达531亿美元

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • infinite
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • The booming Internet economy now is playing an increasingly important role in supporting wealth growth in China's IT industry.
  • 赠送面积成违建 南京600业主无法办理不动产证
  • 据英国《卫报》报道,在去年的伦敦时装周期间,有250名反皮草抗议者,2月份的玛丽卡特兰佐秀场也受到了抗议者激烈的抵制。
  • 房价急涨情况下 别让高企房价“折叠”城市脚步
  • 6. statuesque / a . 高大匀称的,体态优美的。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 杭州楼市热度下降,大学城北新项目首开只卖了六成
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • The infectious disease known as scarlet fever famously reached pandemic proportions in the 19th century, striking down the young and the weak across the Western world.
  • 长久以来,科学家一直在研究干细胞分化为心脏组织的潜力,今年当他们创造出可以自己搏动的心脏组织时,这一研究工作达到了一个重要的里程碑。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

国家发改委:会同多部门共同发布《民营企业境外投资经营行为规范》

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